Bosh sahifa / Grammatik mavzular / Eng ko’p yo’l qo’yiladigan 5 ta grammatik xato

Eng ko’p yo’l qo’yiladigan 5 ta grammatik xato

Eng ko’p yo’l qo’yiladigan xatolarni o’rganib chiqish orqali ingliz tilida yozishingizni yaxshilab olishingiz mumkin. Bu xatolarni tushunish, ularning asosini anglab yetish orqali o’zingiz yozgan matnlarni tekshirishda ko’p xatolarning oldini olishingiz mumkin.

1-XATO: BOSHLANG’ICH FIKR. Boshlang’ich fikr – bu ikkita gapdan iborat bo’lgan qo’shma gap mazmunini bitta gapga jamlash va shu bilan bir qatorda ularni bog’lovchisiz, tinish belgilarisiz uyg’unlashtirish demakdir. Boshlang’ich fikr o’zidan keyin keladigan qo’shma gap mazmunini to’liq yoki umumiy jihatdan qisman ifoda eta olishi kerak. Boshlang’ich fikr va undan keyin keladigan qo’shma gap uyg’unlashuvini besh xil usulda amalga oshirish mumkin:

  1. Boshlang’ich fikr va qo’shma gaplarni ikkita alohida-alohida gaplarga bo’lish;
  2. Vergulni nuqtali vergul bilan almashtirish;
  3. Vergulni biror mos bog’lovchi bilan almashtirish (masalan: and, but, for, yet, or, so);
  4. Vergulni biror mos bog’lovchi so’z bilan almashtirish (masalan: after, although, before, unless, as, because, even though, if, since, until, when, while)
  5. Vegulni nuqtali vergul va o’tish so’z-bog’lovchisi bilan almashtirish (masalan: however, moreover, on the other hand, nevertheless, instead, also, therefore, consequently, otherwise, as a result).

Masalan:

  • Xato: Rachel is very smart, she began reading when she was three years old.
  • To’g’ri: Rachel is very smart. She began reading when she was three years old.
  • To’g’ri: Rachel is very smart; she began reading when she was three years old.
  • To’g’ri: Rachel is very smart, and she began reading when she was three years old.
  • To’g’ri: Because Rachel is very smart, she began reading when she was three years old.
  • To’g’ri: Rachel is very smart; as a result, she began reading when she was three years old.

 2-XATO: OLMOSH. Olmoshdagi xatolik olmosh ko’ratayotgan ega (ot)ga mos kelmaganda sodir bo’ladi. Agar ega ko’plikda bo’lsa, unga ishora qiluvchi olmosh ham ko’plida bo’lishi kerak. Ammo ega birlikda bo’lsa, demak, unga ishora beruvchi olmosh ham birlik shaklida bo’lishi kerak. Misolga e’tibor bering:

  • Xato: Everybody must bring their own lunch.
  • To’g’ri: Everybody must bring his or her own lunch.

Juda ko’p sonli kitoblarda yuqoridagi misollarda berilgan ega va olmosh moslashuvi «Everybody – their» ko’rinishida berilgan. Bu uslub yozuvchilarning «Everybody»ga nisbatan olmosh tanlashda xatolikka yo’l qo’ymasliklarining kafolati sifatida joriy etilgan bo’lsa ham, grammatik jihatdan xato hisoblanadi. Doim «he or she» usulida olmosh keltirishimiz kerak. Shunday qilsak, grammatik jihatdan to’g’ri bo’ladi.

3-XATO: APOSTROF ISHLATILISHI. O’zbek tilidagi «-ning» qo’shimchasi sifatida tarjima qilinib, egalikni bildiruvchi apostrof (tutuq belgisi)ning gaplarda to’g’ri ishlatilishi muhim ahamiyatga ega. Birgina shu belgi ko’p katta ma’no o’zgarishlariga olib kelishi mumkin.

Apostrof belgisi egalik olmoshlaridan keyin ishlatilmaydi. Masalan:

  • Xato: My mothers cabin is next to his’ cabin.
  • To’g’ri: My mother’s cabin is next to his cabin.

Bundan tashqari apostrofning ishlatilishi «it is» va «its» o’rtasidagi tafovvutni ham aniqlab berishi mumkin. Masalan:

  • Xato: Its a cold day in October.
  • To’g’ri: It’s a cold day in October.

4-XATO: EGA VA FE’LNING MOS EMASLIGI. Har doim ega va fe’l mos kelishi kerak. Turli zamonlardagi gaplarning yasalishida ega va fe’lning turli holatlarda qanday moslashishini ko’rib o’tganmiz. Azamat.uz saytining grammatik mavzular bo’limida berilgan barcha zamonlarning yasalishiga e’tibor bersangiz, har doim, hamma vaziyatda ega va fe’l o’zaro mos kelishi talab etiladi. Shundan kelib chiqqan holda quyidagi misollarga e’tibor bering:

  • Xato: The recipes is good for beginning chefs.
  • To’g’ri: The recipes are good for beginning chefs.

5-XATO: PAYT RAVISHLARNING ISHLATILISHI. Har doim payt ravishlari yordamchi fe’ldan keying, asosiy fe’ldan oldin, ham yordamchi, ham asosiy fe’l kelgan holatda ularning o’rtasida ishlatiladi. Mana bunday:

  • To’g’ri: Tom is always late for school.
  • To’g’ri: Tom never does his homework.
  • To’g’ri: Tom has never succeeded in his studies.

Xatolaringizga e’tiborli bo’ling va bir marta qilgan xatongizni boshqa hech qachon takrorlamaslikka harakat qiling!

Abituriyentlar uchun test formulalari

6 ta fikr

  1. opostrf dan oldin va keyin keladigan holatlar haqida ma’lumot berolasizmi?

    • Birlikdagi ot bilan ishlatilganda apostrof belgisi S qo’shimchasidan oldin ishlatiladi. Masalan: My brother’s car.
      Ko’plikdagi ot bilan kelganda esa apostrof belgisi ko’plik yasovchi S qo’shimchasidan keyin qo’yiladi. Masalan: My brothers’ car.

  2. Gerundiy haqqinda mag’lumat berin’ iltimas

  3. Thanks for your wonderful job here. But you should think about your comments on the second error.

    When we refer back to an indefinite pronoun we normally use a plural pronoun:

    Everybody enjoyed the concert. They stood up and clapped.
    I will tell somebody that dinner is ready. They have been waiting a long time.

    These examples are from:
    https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/english-grammar/pronouns/indefinite-pronouns

    Thanks for your attention!

  4. 2-XATO: OLMOSH.

    Xato: Everybody must bring their own lunch.
    To’g’ri: Everybody must bring his or her own lunch.

    Bu fikr noto’g’ri. Har doim Everybody olmoshi birlik shakl ammo ko’plik olmosh talab qiladi. Barcha amerika va britaniya kitoblarida ham shu to’g’ri deb qabul qilingan

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