Bosh sahifa / Grammatik mavzular / Hozirgi davomli zamon

Hozirgi davomli zamon

Bu maqolani o’qishdan oldin ingliz tilidagi zamonlar, ularning farqlari haqida bilib olish uchun ingliz tilidagi zamon tushunchasi to’g’risidagi maqolamni o’qib chiqishingizni tavsiya qilaman.

Hozirgi davomli zamon so’zovchi gapirib turgan vaqtda, hozirgi zamonda davom etib turgan ish-harakatga nisbatan ishlatiladi. Hozirgi davomli zamonda ifodalangan gaplar ingliz tilidan o’zbek tiliga ko’pincha «-yapti» qo’shimchasi orqali tarjima qilinadi. Mana bu gaplar hozirgi davomli zamonda ifodalangan:

  • Men kitob o’qiyapman (hozir, gapirayotgan vaqtimda kitob o’qiyapman);
  • Tom futbol o’ynayapti (hozir, so’zlovchi gapirayotgan vaqtning o’zida Tomning futbol o’ynashi davom etib turibdi);
  • Biz suhbatlashayapmiz (suhbatlashishimiz hozirgi vaqtda davom etib turibdi).

Bu zamonda ifodalanadigan gaplarning yasalishi quyidagicha:

EGA+TO BE+FE’L+ING

Ega o’rnida kishilik olmoshi (I, he, she, it, we, you, they), shaxsning ismi (Tom, Ann, Mike…) yoki biror narsa-buyum nomi (radio, ball, machine…) kelishi mumkin. Egadan keyin, yuqoridagi yasalish formulada ko’rsatilganidek, egaga mos ravishda «to be» fe’lining hozirgi zamon shaklllari AM, IS, yoki ARE ishlatiladi. Shundan keyin infinitiv shaklidagi fe’l va unga qo’shilgan ING (o’zbek tilidagi «-yapti»ga teng bo’lgan) qo’shimchasi ishlatiladi.

Quyida hozirgi davomli zamonga ingliz tilida bir necha misollar keltirilgan. Gaplarning yuqoridagi yasalish formulashi asosida qurilganligiga e’tibor bering:

  • Tom is playing football – Tom futbol o’ynayapti.

(Bu yerda «Tom»=ega, «is»=egaga nisbatan «to be» fe’lining hozirgi zamon shakli, «play»=fe’l va unga qo’shilgan «-ing»=o’zbek tilidagi «-yapti» qo’shimchasi. Gap ish-harakatning hozir davom etib turganligini bildiradi.)

  • I am reading a book – Men kitob o’qiyapman;
  • My brother and I are watching television – Mening ukam va men televizor ko’rayapmiz;
  • She is doing her homework – U uyga vazifasini bajarayapti;
  • They are working in the garden – Ular bog’da ishlayapti.

Hozirgi davomli zamondagi gaplarda so’roq shaklini yasash uchun «to be» fe’li egadan oldinga o’tkaziladi. Yuqoridagi gaplarning yasalish formulasiga qarang va quyida berilgan gaplarda so’roq shaklini hosil qilish uchun formuladagi «to be» fe’li egadan oldinga o’tkazilganligiga e’tibor bering:

  • Am I reding this? – Men buni o’qiyapmanmi?
  • Is Tom playing tennis? – Tom tennis o’ynayaptimi?
  • Are you reading a book? – Siz kitob o’qiyapsizmi?
  • Are they working in the garden? – Ular bog’da ishlayaptimi?

Hozirgi davomli zamon gaplarida inkor shaklini yasash uchun «to be» fe’lidan keyin «NOT» («emas») inkor yuklamasini qo’yamiz. Quyida berilgan gaplarda «to be» fe’li shakllari (am, is are)dan keyin «NOT» inkor yuklamasini qo’yish orqali inkor, bo’lishsiz gaplar hozil qilinayotganligiga e’tibor bering:

  • I am not doing anything – Men hech narsa qilmayapman;
  • She is not doing her homework – U uyga vazifasini bajarmayapti;
  • You are not listening to me – Siz meni tinglamayapsiz;
  • They are not working in the garden – Ular bog’da ishlamayapti.

Hozirgi davomli zamon NOW (hozir), STILL (hali ham), AT THE MOMENT (ayni vaqtda) kabi payt ravishlari bilan birga ishlatilishi mumkin.

Quyida hozirgi davomli zamonda ifodalangan bitta gapning darak, so’roq va inkor shakllarini yasaymiz:

Tom is playing tennis now. – Tom hozir tennis o’ynayapti.

Is Tom playing tennis now? – Tom hozir tennis o’ynayaptimi?

Tom is not playing tennis now. – Tom hozir tennis o’ynamayapti.

Zamon haqidagi har qanday savollaringiz bo’lsa, ularni quyida yozib qoldiring. Ularga javob berishdan va Sizga o’rganishdan yordam berishdan har doim xursandman!

Abituriyentlar uchun test formulalari

6 ta fikr

  1. salom. iltimos ushbu testlarning javoblarini aytvoring.
    1. If i …more sleep, I …… exhausted, but I’m quite well
    a) need/should feel b) needed/ would feel

    2) I find it difficult talk to Alan because we have so….. in common
    a) few b)small c)little d) less

    3) they want their….. to become a doctor, they can’t ever think that she can be against it
    a) fifteen years old girl b)fifteen years girl c) fifteen year old girl d) a fifteen year aged girl

    4) can’t we do something about the situation? » something…. right now»
    a)is doing b) is done c) is being done d) has been doing (right now ni ma’nosi qanday)

    5) she said that her husband was a bank manager
    a)wasn’t he b) was he c)didn’t he d) didn’t she

    6)the train isn’t….. the plane. they both cost the same
    a)as expensive as b)so /like d) as/like

    7)yesterday he had ….on.
    a)a three -pieces suit b) three pieces of suit c) a three -piece suit d) a three piece suit

    manabu yopiq testlarda ham yordam bering
    1. we know that pens, pencils and paper…. writing equipment. (euipment sanaladigan hisoblanadimi

    2. this programme must be new. I’ve …. seen it before (already qo’ysa bo’ladimi)
    3. at the end of the speech the whole assembly gave the speakers a standing….

    • Testlar: 1-B, 2-C, 3-C, 4-Something has to be done right now (RIGHT NOW HOZIROQ) – Hoziroq nimadir qilinishi shart. Ammo variantda to’g’ri javob keltirmagansiz. 5-D, 6-C (variantni keltirmabsiz), menimcha C javobda «more expensive than» bo’lsa kerak. 7-C.
      Yopiq testlar: 1-sanalmaydi, … o’rniga ARE, 2-bo’lmaydi, chunki «yangi bo’lishi kerak» deyapti, demak «never» qo’yiladi, 3-applause – tik turgan holida qarsak chaldi.

  2. 4-sida o’zi shunday berilgan. is done ni olsa bo’ladimi?
    6-sida c)like/like a-javobni olsa bo’ladimi.
    yopiq testni birinchisi ‘is’ emasmi chunki sanalmaydigan otku

    keyin ushbu yopiq testlarni tekshirib bering: (artikllarni qo’yish kerak)
    1) when he got back to…hotel he took …newspaper and considered at his leisure…. story on … page two.
    2) he didn’t like … idea of staying with them for…other day.
    3) I ate… three cakes and he pressed me to have …. fourth.(have a fourth b/sa yana to’rtinchi degan ma’no beradi. bunda shunday manomi yoki tartib sonmi)
    4) he had … series of … landscapes of Tibet by …Russian painter.
    javoblar uchun oldindan rahmat.

    • 4-yo’q, 6-«they both cost the same»-ularning ikkalasining ham narxi bir hil, deyilayapti. Demak bittasi ikkinchisidan qimmatroq emas, degan javobni tanlash kerak. «ARE» «to be» fe’li shaklidan oldin bir necha otlar keltirilgan, ya’ni ko’plikdagi ega, demak «ARE» ishlatiladi.
      Artiklga oid javoblar:
      1- the/a/the/-
      2- the/-
      3- -/the (Tartib. «A fourth» deganda «to’rtinchi» demas, balki «to’rtdan bir qismi, chorak» degan ma’no anglatiladi.)
      4- the/-/a
      Salomat bo’ling!

  3. javoblar uchun katta rahmat

  4. Present simple bn present continuous ni farqi.
    Wont, prefer, hate, love, hear va shundey suzlarni umuman continuousda ishlatmeymizmi

Javob qoldirish

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